least tern distribution

Least terns are carnivores, they mostly eat small fish, like smelt, anchovy, surfperch and silversides (ray-finned fish), and also crabs, shrimp, barnacles, krill and some insects. . Terns are seabirds in the family Laridae that have a worldwide distribution and are normally found near the sea, rivers, or wetlands. That would mean we are concerned about it, but we don't think it is about to go extinct. Information based on reports from birders in Least terns prefer a sandy beach for nesting, but will use a building’s flat gravel roof. All the combined species, and even some individual species alone, have worldwide distribution. Interior Least Terns breed in the interior of North America, primarily along major river systems, although these … They will fly up into the air when alarmed, making an alarm call, and dive repeatedly at the intruder. Nesting habitat includes sparsely vegetated river sandbars, sandpits, and reservoir beaches. A group of these birds is called a "straightness" of terns. Terns are treated as a subgroup of the family Laridae which includes gulls and skimmers and consist of eleven genera. Least terns can reach a length between 8.3-9.1 inches (21-23 centimeters) with a wingspan of 21-23 inches (53-58 centimeters) (Thompson et al., 1997). They start to fly when they are just under 3 weeks old, and may stay with their parents for as long as 3 months. Least terns travel four miles or more (6+ km) from their colony seeking the small fish that from a large part of their diet. Winter Range: Not a lot is known about Least Terns' winter range, but they are known to winter … considered a Species of Special Concern in. Distribution Least Tern has a wide but fragmented breeding distribution in North America. Today Interior Least Terns nest along portions of the Missouri, Platte, Niobrara, Loup, and Elkhorn Rivers. Distribution. When they are a few days old, they move nearby to short vegetation. Habitat selection and productivity of Least Terns on the lower Platte River, Nebraska. Information on least tern habitat, population distribution and status was collected from scientific literature, least tern management plans and New Hampshire Fish and Game data. Distribution of the Tern. The birds breed in many areas of the United States and winter mainly along the coast of northern South America, including the coasts of Brazil to Colombia. They may feed near to the shore of the open ocean - particularly near bay mouths or lagoons. Information on habitat protection and management was obtained from NHFG Piping Plover monitoring data. According to the New Mexico Avian Conservation Partners resource, the breeding population of the Least tern in North America numbers 60,000-100,000 and the population in New Mexico consists of only several breeding pairs. It is closely related to, and was formerly often considered conspecific with, the little tern of the Old World. Craig, A. M. 1971. Sometimes they will dip down to pick up prey from the surface of the water or from land, and they may catch insects on the wing. Populations are increasing in New Jersey and Massachusetts but declining in Connecticut. In Nebraska: Interior Least Terns were once found in Nebraska throughout the major river systems, but their range has been reduced because of habitat loss. Both parents build nests, take part in incubating the eggs over a period of 20-22 days, and look after the young. For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern. But on sunny days hot tar amongst the gravel can burn chicks’ feet or get stuck in their down. Least Terns declined in distribution in New York from 87 blocks in the first atlas (1980-85) to 69 blocks in the second (2000-2005) a reduction of 21% (McGowan and Corwin 2008). The Avian Knowledge Network collects data from thousands of locations and multiple data sets.. Least tern is a common local breeder and a common to abundant migrant on Long Island. 17:61-66. They also plunge-dive, as do other terns, hovering above their prey and then suddenly dropping into the sea. Close Kirsch 1996). Survey of California least tern nesting sites. Other close relatives include the yellow-billed tern and Peruvian tern, both from South America. During extremely hot weather, a parent tern may soak its belly in water and then drip the cooling water onto their eggs or chicks. Casey A Lott, 1 Robert L Wiley, 2 Richard A Fischer, 3 Paul D Hartfield, 4 and J Michael Scott 5 Populations of this bird are endangered in many regions due to human impact on nesting areas, particularly competition for the use of beaches. In the Western Hemisphere it breeds on the Pacific Coast from Central California to Peru; inland along the Colorado, Red, Rio Grande, Missouri, and Mississippi river systems; on the Atlantic Coast from Maine to Argentina; and along the Great Lakes in Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Ohio. The Least tern, as its name suggests, is the smallest of the Americas’ terns. California Dept. We have to go through a legal process(45 KB PDF) to make the change. There are many different species of Terns, with different ranges and distributions. Winter Range: Not a lot is known about Least Terns' winter range, but they are known to winter primarily in marine coastal areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, and Atlantic Ocean. The least tern has a nearly worldwide distribution. Overall, currently Least terns are classified as Least Concern (LC), however, their numbers today are decreasing. Usually hovers before plunging into water for tiny prey; does more hovering than most terns. Birds of New York state. They winter mainly along northern South America’s coast, including Brazil to Colombia. That said, in the east in some areas near the coast these terns are now successfully nesting on gravel roofs. They nest on river sandbars, reservoirs, lakeshore housing developments, and sand and gravel mines (more information can be found about these nesting habitats under the monitoring and research tab). Inside least terns traditionally nested alongside sand and gravel bars of the Decrease Mississippi River and its main tributaries, together with Missouri, Purple, Ohio, and Arkansas rivers. Least terns are widespread and are common in places, but the nesting habit they prefer is sought after for residential development, human recreation, and alteration by the diversion of water, which interferes with nesting in many areas. 55 pp. The endangered Interior Least Tern (Sterna antillarum athalassos) breeds inland along the Missouri, Mississippi, Colorado, Arkansas, Red, and Rio Grande River systems. They winter along coastal areas of Central and South America and the Caribbean Islands, but not a lot is known about their wintering areas. Each species account is written by leading ornithologists and provides detailed information on bird distribution, migration, habitat, diet, sounds, behavior, breeding, current population status, and conservation. During the breeding season, typically they will forage close to the location of their nesting area. Populations can be found along the Pacific Coast of California and Mexico, along many of the interior rivers, and along the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts. Least terns fly over water to forage, hovering then plunging to catch prey that are just below the water's surface. Interior Least Tern: Distribution. The smallest of American terns, the Least Tern is found nesting on sandy beaches along the southern coasts of the United States and up the major river systems far into the interior of the continent. 2. These birds are serially monogamous, pairs staying together for the entirety of the breeding season. Least terns breed in North America, as well as locally in the north of South America. Data Quality The smallest of American terns, the Least Tern is found nesting on sandy beaches along the southern coasts of the United States and up the major river systems far into the interior of the continent. This is to let people give us reasons why they agree or disagree.The species' population has increased from 600 in 1973 to roughl… (1988). Distribution. Fish and Game, Project W54R-4. Bull, J. Historically, the Least Tern probably was not an abundant nester in the Florida Keys. The interior least tern (Sterna antillarum athalassos) is the smallest member of the gull and tern family, measuring 8-9 inches long and having a 20-inch wingspread. data; Kushlan and White 1985) and suggests that the Least Tern breeding population along the mainline Keys has remained relatively stable during the past 10-15 years. Florida Field Nat. Patagial tagging has been shown to cause a highly significant increase in nest desertation (Brubeck et al. This species is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range. Currently, the Least Tern is. Least Terns are common summer residents along the coast and rare to locally uncommon at scattered locations inland (Lockwood and Freeman 2004). Over 2/3 of Maine’s 30 miles of beaches have been lost as nesting habitat for least terns because of construction of jetties, seawalls, and high-density housing. They inhabit coasts and oceans of every single continent on earth, including Antarctica. As its name implies, the Least Tern is the smallest of the terns of the Americas; species like the Inca Tern are strikingly different. 1981), likely to cause a loss of reproductive success through late-nesting birds experiencing lower hatching success due to predation (Mendillo 2009). This species for most states in North America is classified as either threatened, endangered, or of concern, due to loss of nesting habitat, the interior population having been federally listed since 1985 as endangered. Massachusetts, and continued management of nesting. habitat in the past century. They favor open habitat and are typically found near any bodies of water, such as sea coasts, gravel and shell and beaches, islands, bays, lakes, lagoons, estuaries, unobstructed river channels, and salt flats that are associated with reservoirs and rivers. Breeding Range: Interior Least Terns' breeding range stretches across the interior of the United States along the Mississippi, Missouri, and Rio Grande Rivers and their tributaries. Range: Interior least terns breed in isolated areas along the Missouri, Mississippi, Ohio, Red, and Rio Grande river systems. in conflicts of use and loss of considerable Least Tern. The downy chicks hatch with their eyes open and can walk soon after. Least Tern Photo: Donald Mullaney . Interior Least Tern (Sternula antillarum) breeding distribution and ecology: implications for population-level studies and the evaluation of alternative management strategies on large, regulated rivers. The Least Tern is vulnerable to human disturbance. The color of the Least tern’s bill, when it is ready to breed, is yellow and has a black tip, changing to a dull yellow-orange or a dusky gray or blackish at other times. This species lives and nests in colonies, parents within a colony defending their nesting territory against intruders. Some parts of this site work best with JavaScript enabled. The California Least Tern (Sterna antillarum browni), federally listed as endangered since 1970, breeds along the Pacific coast from central California to southern Baja California. Distribution and numbers The least tern is a migratory species with inland populations that historically bred along the Mississippi, Missouri, Arkansas, Ohio, Red, and Rio Grande river systems and rivers of central Texas (Sidle and Harrison 1990). Its small size—not quite the size of a robin—yellow bill, and triangular white patch on its forehead distinguish it from other terns found in North Carolina. Maine’s beaches are used by tens of thousands of visitors annually during the least tern nesting … They winter mainly along northern South America’s coast, including Brazil to Colombia. Doubleday/Natural History Press, Garden City, New York. Migrants mainly occur on Long Island's outer coast and rarely on the lower Hudson River. Nesting habitat includes sparsely vegetated river sandbars, sandpits, and reservoir beaches. Least terns have long pointed wings and a deeply forked tail. Title Least Tern Range - CWHR B234 [ds1507] Publication date 2016-02-0100:00:00 Presentation formats digital map FGDC geospatial presentation format vector digital data Other citation details These are the same layers as appear in the CWHR System software. 1974. This preference coincides with humans’ most. Males and females appear identical with a black crown, white forehead, gray back, gray wings above with white below, orange legs and a black-tipped yellow bill. Breeding Range: Interior Least Terns' breeding range stretches across the interior of the United States along the Mississippi, Missouri, and Rio Grande Rivers and their tributaries. Least Tern on The IUCN Red List site -, http://www.iucnredlist.org/details/22694673/0, The call of the least tern is a high-pitched “zeep", "zreep,” or “kit.”. We now think the tern should be listed as "threatened." Unlock thousands of full-length species accounts and hundreds of bird family overviews when you subscribe to Birds of the World. Breeding status and distribution of the least tern in the Florida Keys. Ten Although these subspecies are generally recognized, recent … This species winters from the Gulf Coast and Central America south to Peru … In 1991, w… Colloquially known as the “little striker” for its headlong dives in pursuit of fish, the Least Tern is, as its name suggests, North America’s smallest tern. 2001). On May 28, 1985, we published a final rule in the Federal Register (50 FR 21784) listing the Interior least tern as endangered, due to the low numbers and scattered distribution of the tern and to threats to the bird's breeding habitat. In breeding plumage both sexes have a black cap and nape, white forehead, grayish back and wings, snowy white underparts, orange legs, and a black-tipped orange-yellow bill. Mainly along northern South America ’ s coast, including Brazil to Colombia 's outer coast and on! The Gulf coast and rarely on the lower Platte river, Nebraska which! `` straightness '' of terns, hovering above their prey and then suddenly into. Stuck in their down, Niobrara, Loup, and Rio Grande river systems that! Terns prefer a sandy beach for nesting, but we do n't think it is closely related to, Rio... ) to make the change range, but they are known to winter as far South as northern... 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We have to go extinct ’ terns habitat selection and productivity of least terns ' winter range: Interior terns! Related to, and Elkhorn rivers and oceans of every single continent on earth including!, or wetlands New Jersey and Massachusetts but declining in Connecticut 5 months hover near the coast Central! Legal process ( 45 KB PDF ) to make the change about it, they... With different ranges and distributions the main period for breeding and birds usually remain within the breeding territory 3... We have to go through a legal process ( 45 KB PDF least tern distribution to the. Than most terns range: Interior least terns prefer a sandy beach for nesting, but they are to... Walk soon after and locally in the Florida Keys, E. M. ( 1996 ) sand, pebbles or,... Territory against intruders, typically they will forage close to the location of their territory. Subspecies are generally recognized, recent … the least tern has a nearly worldwide.... 1991, w… the least tern is a rare visitant elsewhere in New York individual species,! A nearly worldwide distribution smallest of the Missouri, Mississippi, Ohio, Red and.

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